The lower limit of the voltage of the ternary lithium ion battery is the discharge termination voltage. If it is lower than this voltage and continues to discharge, the performance is degraded, and the fire is caused by the heavy.
This over-discharge protection circuit is powered by a protected battery without the need for an additional power supply. Once the discharge termination voltage is reached, the load and protection circuits of the battery are cut off.
The circuit is as shown in the middle picture. The 12V ternary lithium ion battery is used as a protection object, and can also be used for battery protection of other voltages. The non-inverting input of comparator IC1 is connected to a 5v reference voltage, which is provided by regulator IC2. The inverting input is connected to the protected battery terminal voltage through the potentiometer VR1. VR1 is used to adjust the voltage regulation, and is adjusted to 10V of the discharge termination voltage of the 12V battery.
When the jog switch SW1 is pressed, the lithium iron phosphate lithium ion battery supplies power to the protection circuit, the comparator output is "L", the relay RL1 is electrically connected, and the contacts are self-protected, and the battery and the load are also connected. . After SW1 is released, the battery continues to supply power. At the same time, LED1 emits light, indicating that it is in a discharged state.
When the battery is discharged to the set termination voltage (10V), the comparator is turned over, the relay is de-energized, and the load and protector are disconnected from the battery to avoid over-discharge. If the load on the battery is large and the contact of the relay cannot pass a large current, a contactor can be added. Turn the relay contacts to the contactor coil power supply and use the contactor contacts to switch the load on.
If a comparator with low drive capability (such as LM393 or op amp LM358) cannot directly drive the relay, the lithium manganese oxide lithium ion battery can be added with a driver stage after the comparator. The driver stage uses a high-power transistor RN2202 with built-in resistors. The circuit is shown below. The figure below shows a 24V battery. At this time, the termination voltage of VR1 adjustment should be 20V.
If the battery has a long power lead, the line resistance will cause a voltage drop.
First, the composition of the battery: dry battery, rechargeable battery components: zinc skin (iron), carbon rods, mercury, sulfate, copper cap; batteries are mainly lead compounds. For example: the composition of the No. 1 waste zinc-manganese battery, weighing about 70 grams, including 5.2 grams of carbon rods, 7.0 grams of zinc skin, 25 grams of manganese powder, 0.5 grams of copper cap, and other 32 grams.
Second, lithium manganese oxide lithium ion battery components
Plate, partition, terminal, column, saddle, baffle, gas plug, exhaust valve, safety plug, protection plate, connecting strip, connecting wire, insulating card, pole group, positive plate, negative plate, plate Pair, plate group, plate group, sealant, sealing agent, liquid plug, separator, positive electrode column, negative electrode column, electrolyte, electrolyte, integral shell, integral tank, battery cover, battery case, battery tank, negative electrode Terminals, active materials, Fuer plates, tubular plates, battery holders, bag plates, positive terminals, liquid level indicators, output cables, terminal strips, sintered plates, box negative plates, forming Plate, battery bottom pad, Prandt plate, paste plate, combination plate group, battery combination box, battery pack case, battery combo box, plate plate plate,
1. Dry battery (a commonly used one is carbon-zinc dry battery): The negative electrode is a cylinder made of zinc, containing ammonium chloride as an electrolyte, a small amount of zinc chloride, lithium iron phosphate lithium ion battery inert filler and water-adjusted paste. The electrolyte is a carbon rod surrounded by a paste electrolyte doped with manganese dioxide. The electrode reaction is: the zinc atom at the negative electrode becomes zinc ion (Zn++), and electrons are released, and the ammonium ion (NH4+) at the positive electrode obtains electrons to become ammonia gas and hydrogen gas. The hydrogen dioxide is used to drive off the hydrogen to eliminate the polarization. The electromotive force is about 1.5 volts.
2. Lead storage batteries are most commonly used. The plates are made of lead alloy and the electrolyte is dilute sulfuric acid. Both plates are covered with lead sulfate. However, after charging, the lead sulfate on the positive electrode plate is converted into lead dioxide, and the lead sulfate at the negative electrode is converted into metal lead. When discharging, a chemical reaction in the opposite direction occurs.
3. Lead-crystal battery: The lead-crystal battery is a proprietary technology. The high-conductive silicate electrolyte used is a complex modification of the traditional lead-acid battery electrolyte. The acid-free internalization process is an innovation of the shaping process.
4, iron nickel battery: also called Edison battery. Unlike lead acid batteries, which are acidic batteries, the electrolyte of iron-nickel batteries is an alkaline potassium hydroxide solution, which is an alkaline storage battery. The positive electrode is nickel oxide and the negative electrode is iron. The electromotive force is about 1.3 to 1.4 volts. Its advantages are light weight, long life and easy maintenance. The disadvantage is that the efficiency is not high.
5. Nickel-cadmium storage battery: the positive electrode is nickel hydroxide, the negative electrode is cadmium, and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide solution.
6. Silver-zinc battery: the positive electrode is silver oxide, the negative electrode is zinc, and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide solution.
7. Fuel cell: The fuel cell is composed of four parts: a fuel (such as hydrogen, methane, etc.), an oxidant (such as oxygen and air), an electrode, and an electrolyte.
8. Solar cell: A device that converts the energy of sunlight into electrical energy.
9. Nuclear battery: A device that directly converts nuclear energy into electrical energy (current nuclear power generation devices use nuclear fission energy to heat steam to drive generators to generate electricity, and nuclear energy released during nuclear fission cannot be directly converted into electrical energy).
10. Alkaline battery: Alkaline battery is the most successful high-capacity dry battery, and it is also one of the most cost-effective batteries. The alkaline battery is manganese dioxide as the positive electrode, zinc as the negative electrode, and potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte.
11. Lithium battery: A battery with lithium as the negative electrode. According to the electrolyte used, it is divided into: 1 high temperature molten salt lithium battery; 2 organic electrolyte lithium battery; 3 inorganic nonaqueous electrolyte lithium battery; 4 solid lithium battery electrolyte lithium battery; 5 lithium water battery. The advantage of the lithium battery is that the single battery has high voltage, large specific energy, long storage life (up to 10 years), high and low temperature performance, and can be used at -40 to 150 °C. A dry battery is a voltaic battery that uses an absorbent (such as wood chips or gelatin) to make the contents a paste that does not spill. Often used as a power source for flashlight lighting, radios, etc. After years of development, China's dry battery technology has made breakthroughs in energy, cycle life, high and low temperature adaptability.
Zhiyan Data Research Center shows that China is gradually narrowing the gap with international leading technology, and has reached international level in some core technologies, and is increasingly entering the international market.
Drycell (Drycell) is a chemical battery that uses a paste electrolyte to generate direct current (a wet battery is a chemical battery using a liquid electrolyte). It is roughly divided into a primary battery and a secondary battery. For general use, as well as a lightweight battery. It can be made in the lab. The batteries that can be made in the lab can be used on many electrical appliances.
A common dry battery is a zinc-manganese battery (or a carbon-zinc battery, ie dryLeclanchécell).
A dry battery is a primary battery in a chemical power source and is a disposable battery. Since this chemical power supply device has an electrolyte that is a non-flowable paste, it is called a dry battery, which is said to be relative to a battery having a flowable electrolyte. Dry batteries are not only suitable for flashlights, semiconductor radios, tape recorders, cameras, electronic clocks, toys, etc., but also for various fields of national economy such as national defense, scientific research, telecommunications, navigation, aviation, medicine, etc., very easy to use. Ordinary dry batteries are mostly manganese-zinc batteries, with a positive carbon rod in the middle, a mixture of graphite and manganese dioxide, and a layer of fiber mesh. The network is coated with a thick electrolyte paste, which is composed of ammonium chloride solution and starch. There is also a small amount of preservative. The outermost layer is a cylinder made of metal zinc, which is the negative electrode. The discharge of the battery is the electrolytic reaction of ammonium chloride and zinc. The released charge is transferred from the graphite to the positive carbon rod. The electrolytic reaction of zinc is Will release hydrogen, this gas will increase the internal resistance of the battery, and manganese dioxide mixed with graphite is used to absorb hydrogen. But if the battery works continuously or for too long, manganese dioxide is too late or has Near saturation does not have the ability to reabsorb. At this time, the battery will be too small due to the internal resistance and the output current is too small to lose its effect. However, if the battery is heated or left for a period of time, the accumulated hydrogen inside it will be released by heat or Slowly released. Manganese dioxide is also restored to restore, then the battery is energetic!